There is an interesting paper on the role of dust within the climate system that may also be relevant for the record loss of Arctic sea ice in recent years. It is
Painter T. H., A. P. Barrett, C. C. Landry, J. C. Neff, M. P. Cassidy, C. R. Lawrence, K. E. McBride, G. L. Farmer (2007), Impact of disturbed desert soils on duration of mountain snow cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12502, doi:10.1029/2007GL030284.
The abstract is
“Snow cover duration in a seasonally snow covered mountain range (San Juan Mountains, USA) was found to be shortened by 18 to 35 days during ablation through surface shortwave radiative forcing by deposition of disturbed desert dust. Frequency of dust deposition and radiative forcing doubled when the Colorado Plateau, the dust source region, experienced intense drought (8 events and 39–59 Watts per square meter in 2006) versus a year with near normal precipitation (4 events and 17–34 Watts per square meter in 2005). It is likely that the current duration of snow cover and surface radiation budget represent a dramatic change from those before the widespread soil disturbance of the western US in the late 1800s that resulted in enhanced dust emission. Moreover, the projected increases in drought intensity and frequency and associated increases in dust emission from the desert southwest US may further reduce snow cover duration.”
The discussion includes the text,
” Expansion and intensification of grazing, recreational use and agriculture over the past ~140 years has increased the dust emission from the Colorado Plateau and other desert regions of the western US [Belnap and Gillette, 1997; Neff et al., 2005; Reynolds et al., 2001]. Therefore it is likely that the above changes in snow cover duration and surface radiative forcing increased significantly with human activity in the late-1800s, as desert surface crusts were disturbed and dust was more freely emitted to the Rocky Mountains and other mountain ranges of the western US that are downwind of disturbed soils. Analyses similar to those performed for the San Juan Mountains and an analysis of time series of dust deposition from mountain lake sediments across the western US will provide a clearer understanding of the spatial and temporal extent of this shortening of snow cover duration.
The phenomenon of increasing dust emission exists beyond the western US and is global in nature with the potential to continue to perturb resource-critical mountain snowmelt systems. Dust emission frequency in China from the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts (proximal to the Tien Shan and Altai ranges) has increased from one event in ~35 years for the period AD85-1949 to annual since 1990 [Liu and Diamond, 2005]. A four-fold increase in dust deposition over the previous two centuries was found in the Dasuopu glacier ice core at elevation 7200 m in Tibet [Thompson et al., 2000], with the continuum increase attributed to increased land usage whereas the interannual variability attributed to interannual changes in precipitation. The drying of the Aral Sea has affected enormous increases in dust emission that frequently deposits in the Tien Shan, Pamir, Himalaya, and Altai Mountains [Waltham and Sholji, 2001]. Dust deposition to the Antarctic Peninsula has doubled in the 20th Century due to the coupled effects of changing climate and land degradation”
The article continues with assuming that droughts will become worse with “global warming”, which, as Climate Science has discussed (e.g. see), has not been shown to be a robust prediction. Nonetheless, the paper does show that even without “global warming” the human intervention in landscape management (deliberate and inadvertent) has major consequences in altering the climate system on the global scale.