In response to the post
Gerhard Kramm of the Univeristy of Alaska sent the following e-mail which I have reproduced below with his permission. I am asking Nicola to respond in a separate post.
Date: Fri, 18 Nov 2011 16:44:38 -0900
From: Gerhard Kramm To: Roger A Pielke Sr Subject: Your comments on Scafetta’s paper
With respect to your comments on Scafetta’s paper, I would like to send a diagram to you that I created two years ago. It shows the solar constant (blue line) computed with Eq. (1) by Schneider and Mass (1975). S & M mentioned that Kondratyev and Nicolsky used this formula which is, obviously, attributed to Angstroem, where the sunspot numbers of the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) at the Royal Observatory of Belgium were used (see attachment). Obviously, if the sunspot numbers become too large the solar constant is decreasing. This seems to be reasonable because the sunspots are much colder than their surroundings. Unfortunately, I found not enough background material about Angstroem’s empirical formula.
The diagram also shows the globally averaged near-surface temperature (HadCRUT3, red line). It seems to me that the temperature is correlated with the minimum values of the computed solar constant, but the amount of the correlation coefficient is small. Since the sunspot number may be considered as an indication for the sun’s activity, this weak correlation does not notably support Scafetta’s hypothesis.